Archive For The “General Science” Category

Bernoullia’s theorem

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When air is blown over the top of a sheet of paper, the paper rises in the air stream. This happens because the pressure falls above the paper where the air is moving faster. We take a table tennis ball and place in a funnel and hold it with the mouth sloping upwards. When we…

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Viscosity

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When we move our fingers through any liquid we experience a resistance. This is because liquid offers a frictional force. The resistance offered by fluids (liquids as well as gases) to relative motion between its different layers is called viscous force. This property is called viscosity. The viscous forces are similar to frictional forces which…

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Surface Tension

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Surface tension of a liquid is defined as the tangential force per unit length acting at right angles on an imaginary line drawn on the surface of the liquid. Its unit is Newton per Metre. Contents Understanding Surface Tension Adhesive and Cohesive Forces How Surface Tension works? Capillary Action Applications of Capillary Action in daily life…

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Sun-synchronous orbit

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Sun-synchronous orbit or a heliosynchronous orbit very important because of its particular importance to satellites intended for remote sensing and military applications. A sun-synchronous orbit is one that lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-sun direction. In other words, it combines altitude and inclination in such a way…

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Polar Orbits

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The Polar Orbit is not much suitable for communication purposes because it moves in a different direction than that of direction of earth’s rotation. So, the use of Polar satellites depends upon their arrival at a particular point on earth at a particular point. The Polar orbits are used for special applications like navigational satellites….

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Low Earth Orbits

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A satellite can also be placed in Low Earth Orbits (about 1,000 kilometers above the Earth (between 400 miles and 1,600 miles)). However, satellites in LEO need a higher velocity than Geostationary orbits.  For example, a satellite which is placed in an orbit at altitude of 200 kilometers will need an orbital velocity of approximately…

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Geostationary and Geosynchronous Orbits

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The core principle of an orbit is that as a satellite or object moved tangentially, it falls toward the earth / other body, but it moved so quickly that earth / body will curve away beneath it. Thus we can understand that gravity pulls this object into a curved path as it attempts to fly…

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Artificial Satellite Basics

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Satellite refers to any project that is orbiting earth, sun or other planetary bodies. Satellites can be artificial or natural. The artificial satellites basically work on principle of projectiles. The only force that works on satellites is gravity. Once launched in an orbit, gravity is the only force governing the motion of the satellite. Contents…

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Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion & Newton’s Law of Gravitation

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In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler proposed three laws of planetary motion as follows: Contents Kepler’s First law (Law of orbits) Second law (Law of areas) Third law (Law of periods) Newton’s universal law of gravitation Kepler’s First law (Law of orbits) Each planet moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun…

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Horizontal Projectile Motion: Physics Notes

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When an object is thrown from horizontal at an angle θ except 90°, then it will follow a trajectory and the motion is called projectile motion.  A horizontally thrown ball and a bullet fired from a rifle held horizontally are the examples of projectiles in the horizontal direction. For this type of projection there is…

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LAN, WAN & MANs

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A network consists of multiple computers connected using some type of interface, each having one or more interface devices. The primitive computers were the self contained devices in which the data was confined in it. The only way to transfer the data from one machine to another was to take the data in a storage…

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Parts of a Computer

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All general-purpose computers has the following main hardware components. Memory: Memory enables the computers to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. Mass storage device: Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common classic mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. The latest being the Hard Disks and USB mass…

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Importance of Water for Life

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Water is the basis of life. There are various properties of water that make it basis of life. These include its molecular polarity, high specific heat, its boiling and melting points which allow it to remain liquid in most environments on Earth, its acid-base neutrality, small molecular size and low chemical reactivity. Contents Water as…

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Organic and Inorganic Molecules of Life

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Four chemical elements that make up the majority of living biological matter are Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. Organisms are made of both organic and inorganic substances. Contents Inorganic substances Organic Molecules Inorganic substances Some of the most common inorganic substances needed for life are water, mineral salts, molecular oxygen, molecular carbon dioxide etc. Out…

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Basic Features of Life

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Biology is the science of living things or organisms.  Scientific evidence suggests that life began on Earth approximately 3.5 billion years ago by variously proposed mechanisms. Contents Basic Features Are Viruses Living Organisms? Carbon Bonds – The Basic Feature of Life on Earth Comparison of Carbon and Silicon Basic Features Life is considered a characteristic…

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Pasteurization

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Pasteurization is one of the methods of preservation of products such as milk, alcoholic beverages etc. at higher temperatures. Pasteurization is defined as the process of heating products to a particular temperature and holding it at that temperature for a particular time till the pathogenic (disease causing) micro-organisms are destroyed causing minimum change in composition,…

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What are different types of Glass?

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The approximate composition of ordinary glass is given by the formula, Na2O. CaO.6SiO2. The raw materials required for the manufacture of ordinary glass are sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica. The raw materials are ground separately to a fine powder, weighed accurately and mixed in a definite proportion. The mixture is called batch. A specific…

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Primary Colors, Secondary colors and Complimentary Colors

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When a beam of white light is passed through a prism, white light splits up into different colours. Consequently a coloured pattern is obtained on the screen. This splitting of white light into its constituent colours is called dispersion of light. The coloured patent obtained on the screen is called a spectrum. The colours are…

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Human Eye & Eye Defects

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Our eyeball is nearly spherical with white outer layer called the sclera. Here is a short description of how our eye works. Contents Working of Human Eye Short-sightedness or Myopia Long sightedness (or) Hypermetropia Working of Human Eye The light enters the eye through a curved transparent tissue called Cornea. In humans, the refractive power…

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Twinkling of Stars and Mirage

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Heat energy radiated by the earth changes the density of the atmospheric layers continuously. This changing density of the air layers near the ground affects its refractive index. Due to the refraction of light rays from the star, path of these rays goes on varying. Hence the eye some times receives more light with the…

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Real Images and Virtual Images

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The image formed by the actual intersection of refracted rays through a lens is called the real image. The real images can be caught on the screen and they are inverted. The images that appear without actual intersection of the refracted rays are called virtual images. Contents Convex Lens Concave Lens Lens Formula & Power…

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